100 Atrocities Committed by Chinese Communist Party (CCP) – A Report by GATPM

Released on Human Rights Day | 10th December 2021 | GATPM | London

100 Atrocities Committed by Chinese Communist Party (CCP)

STOP the Kow-tow NOW.

As the Communist Party of China (CCP) celebrates its 100th founding anniversary this year, the Global Alliance for Tibet & Persecuted Minorities (GATPM) wishes to put on record the top 100 atrocities committed by the Chinese regime over the past 100 years. Awareness of these utterly reprehensible actions carried out by the CCP is crucial at a time when the CCP is exporting its malign activities outside mainland China. The free world must do all it can to stop the CCP from using its economic muscle to hoodwink gullible leaders into supporting its self-interested aims which run counter to freedom and democracy.

100 Atrocities Committed by Chinese Communist Party (CCP):

1.    Battle of Kashgar (June 1934), Kashgar, Xinjiang – Confrontation between Uyghurs (Turkic Muslims) and Han Chinese nationals. Several thousand Turkic people were slaughtered.

2.      Yan’an Rectification Movement (1942 – 1945) – First ideological mass movement initiated by the Communist Party of China. More than 10,000 of its own citizens were killed in the “rectification” process as the Party made efforts to attack intellectuals.

3.    Siege of Changchun (23 May 1948 – 19 October 1948), Changchun and proximity – The People’s Liberation Army (PLA) forces refused to let civilians leave the city of Changchun in order to exhaust the food supply of the Kuomintang (KMT) defenders, resulting in mass civilian casualties.  Between 150,000 and 200,000 civilians are estimated to have died due to starvation.

4.      Annexation of East Turkestan (1949) – The PLA entered East Turkestan in October 1949 and controlled most of the vast region by the spring of 1950.

5.      Annexation of Southern Mongolia (1949) – China annexed Southern Mongolia in 1949.

6.     Claim over Taiwan (1949) – The Communist Chinese Government claims that Taiwan is an inalienable part of China.

7.     Annexation of Tibet (1950) – The PLA troops launched the invasion of Tibet. A year later, in May 1951, China forced the Tibetan delegation to sign a “17-Point Agreement” in Beijing.

8.     Chinese Land Reform (1949–1953) – The campaign was launched by the CCP Leader Mao Tsetung. It involved mass murder of landlords by tenants. Zhou Enlai, the Chinese Premier, estimated that 830,000 had been killed whereas Mao Tsetung estimated that as many as 2 to 3 million were killed.

9.     Campaign to suppress Counter-revolutionaries (1950 – 1953) – Implemented by the CCP to eradicate opposition elements and those who undermine the CCP. A significant number of “counter-revolutionaries” were arrested and sentenced. According to the CCP’s official statistics in 1954, at least 2.5 million people were arrested; 1.3 million imprisoned and 712 were executed during the campaign.

10.  The Three ‘Anti’ Campaigns (1951) – The campaign was launched by the CCP and directed against members within the CCP, the former Kuomintang (KMT) members, and bureaucratic officials. Victims of the campaign were subject to terror and humiliation and were subsequerntly killed or sent to labour camps.

11.  The Five ‘Anti’ Campaigns (1952) – Mao Tsetung launched the campaign to target political opponents and wealthy capitalists. The exact death toll is not known. In Shanghai alone, from 25 January to 1 April 1952, at least 876 people committed suicide.

12.  The Sufan movement (Campaign to eradicate hidden counter-revolutionaries) (1955 – 1957) – Purge of perceived opponents in the People’s Republic of China under Mao Tsetung. During the purge, around 214,000 people were arrested and approximately 53,000 died.

13.  Anti-Rightist Campaign (1957–1959) – Political campaign launched by the CCP to purge alleged “Rightists” within the Chinese Communist Party and abroad. The campaign resulted in political persecution of at least 550,000 people. Researchers estimate the actual number of victims is between 1 to 2 million or even higher.

14.  Xunhua Incident (1958), Qinghai – The massacre was conducted by the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) towards local civilians. At least 435 people died in the massacre.

15.  Tibetan National Uprising in Lhasa (March 1959) – After the PLA attempted to harm the Tibetan Spiritual Leader, His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, tens of thousands of Tibetans provided human shields to protect him. The Chinese military launched rockets and killed many thousands of Tibetans. The Dalai Lama fled Lhasa, Tibet’s capital, and sought political asylum in India later that month. According to the PLA’s own figures, at least 87,000 people died in the revolt. Tibetans estimate 1.2 million Tibetans have died as a direct result of China’s occupation of Tibet.

16.  Violence in the Great Chinese Famine (1959-1961) – Many extra-judicial killings occurred during the Great Chinese Famine. At least 2.5 million people were beaten or tortured to death, which accounted for 6% – 8% of the total deaths in the Great Famine.

17.  Socialist Education Movement (1963 – 1965) – More than 77,560 people died in the movement launched by the CCP.

18.  Red August, Beijing (August – September 1966) – Origin of the Red Terror in the Chinese Cultural Revolution, triggering the “Daxing Massacre” which killed 325 people in a few days. Statistics from 1985 showed a death toll of over 10,000 due to the Red August movement.

19.  Guangxi Massacre (1966–1976) – Massive cannibalism occurred. The estimated death toll is between 100,000 and 150,000.

20.  Inner Mongolia incident (1967–1969) – During this incident, between16,632  and 100,000 Mongols were killed.

21.  Qinghai Massacre (February 1967) – Conducted by the People’s Liberation Army, over 200 Tibetans died.

22.  Guangzhou Incident (August 1967), Guangzhou, Guangdong – More than 1000 people died due to the Cultural Revolution.

23.  Anti-Peng Pai Incident (August 1967), Shanwei, Guangdong – During the Cultural revolution, more than 160 people died, 800 people were crippled and 3000 were injured.

24.  Qingtongxia Incident (August 1967), Qingtongxia, Ningxia – The PLA killed more than 100 people during this phase of the Cultural Revolution.

25.  Yangjiang Massacre (1967–1969), Yangjiang, Guangdong – A series of massacres took place during the Cultural Revolution in which more than 3500 people died.

26.  Daoxian Massacre (August – October 1967), Daoxian, Hunan –  The massacre took place in more than 10 counties, mainly in Dao County. 9093 people died.

27.  Shaoyang County Massacre (July – September 1968), Shaoyang, Hunan – Influenced by the Daoxian Massacre. 991 people died.

28.  Dan County Massacre (August 1968), Danzhou, Hainan – Part of the Guangdong Massacre. Over fifty thousand people were jailed and thousands more permanently disabled. Conducted by the People’s Liberation Army and local militias, more than 700 people died.

29.  Ruijin Massacre (September – October 1968), Ruijin, Jiangxi – Took place in Ruijin County, Xingguo County, and Yudu County. More than 1000 people died.

30.  Zhao Jianmin Spy Case (1968–1969), Yunnan – The Central Committee of the CCP took charge to purge and persecute more than 1.38 million civilians and officials.

31.  Shadian Incident (July – August 1975), Yunnan – Conflict between the CCP and local Hui (Muslim) people resulted in the deaths of more than 1600 civilians.

32.  Tibetan Unrests (1987-1989), Tibet –  A series of protests and demonstrations calling for Tibetan Independence turned into riots and the PLA killed hundreds of Tibetans during this period.

33.  Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, Tiananmen Square Massacre, Beijing – Between 200 and 10,000 civilians were killed. The Red Cross states that around 2,600 died. The official Chinese government figure is 241 dead with 7,000 wounded.  The event, though well recorded, has been “written out” of Chinese history.

34.  Ghulja Incident (5 February1997), Ghulja, Xinjiang – Demonstrations in Ghulja were violently put down by the police after two days of protesting. Official reports put the death toll at 9.

35.  Tibetan Protests (2008, 16 March), Lhasa, Sichuan, Qinghai, Gansu – To commemorate the 49th anniversary of the Tibetan Uprising of 10 March 1959, some Tibetans started protests collectively in Tibetan areas of China and parts of central, eastern and northern Tibet. It later evolved into widespread protests across the Tibetan plateau.

36.  July 2009 Ürümqi Riots – More than 1000 Uyghurs died in the massacre carried out by the PLA  on protesters demanding freedom for East Turkestan (Xinjiang).

37.  CCP’s support for the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia – In the 1970s, the Khmer Rouge were largely supported and funded by the CCP, receiving approval from Mao Tsetung. It is estimated that at least 90% of the foreign aid which was provided to the Khmer Rouge came from China. Deaths under the Khmer Rouge range from 1.5 million to 2 million.

38.  Establishment of mass internment camps in Xinjiang (2016 onwards) – The CCP has tortured ethnic minority populations by forcefully detaining them in internment camps and contínues to do so, despite widespread condemnation..

39.  Hong Kong Extradition Bill 2019 – Two people died, more than 10,000 people were arrested and more than 2,600 people were injured when Hong Kong residents  protested against the Extradition Bill.

40.  Hong Kong Protests 2014 – During the 2014 protests, 955 people were arrested and some 470 people were injured. Hong Kongers were demanding democracy in Hong Kong.

41.  Persecution of Falun Gong (1999 – ongoing) – The CCP launched anti-religious campaigns in 1999 to ban spiritual practices in China. Over 3,700 Falun Gong practitioners died, due to torture in custody. Many of these peaceful practitioners faced organ harvesting for the benefit of the CCP regime.

42.  Arbitrary detentions in Hong Kong – Hong Kongers are currently being jailed for speaking up for freedom and resistance against the CCP regime’s interference in Hong Kong.

43.  Ban on Tiananmen Square Commemoration events (2020) – The CCP banned annual Tiananmen Square commemoration events in Hong Kong, citing COVID-19 public gathering restrictions. A year later, in 2021, the Chinese government imposed bans on any form of commemorating this event in Hong Kong and other regions within China, resulting in further restrictions of freedom of expression and freedom of movement.

44. Suppression of the so-called “Evil Cults” such as The Church of Almighty God, The Shouters, Mentuhui, Unification Church, Guanyin Famen, Bloody Holy Spirit, All Ranges Church, Sanban Puren Pai, True Buddha School etc. in the name of clamping down on superstitions and illegal activities.

45. Discrediting local ethnic dialects such as Cantonese, Hakka and other languages in the region across China to promote the Mandarin language and Han culture all over China.

46. Ethnic Cleansing of the ethnic minority populations through religious and cultural suppression. Despite 70 years of Communist Party control the need for constant repression suggests widespread resistance.

47. Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners, Uyghurs, Tibetans and other ethnic minorities.

48. Forced Labour – The use of forced labour in China’s cotton-picking industry.

49. Rewriting history – Revising, and rewriting history, with each successive handover of power in Beijing’s leadership suggests continuing resistance to the CCP.

50.  Abduction of the 11th Panchen Lama in 1995 – The then six years old Gedhun Choekyi Nyima was abducted by the CCP to gain control over Tibetan Buddhism. Traditionally, the Panchen Lama and the Dalai Lama have engaged in the search of each other’s reincarnations. With this interference by the Chinese government, the Beijing-appointed “Panchen Lama” is poised to search for the next Dalai Lama –  a major meddling in the tradition of Tibetan Buddhism.

51.  Sinicization of Tibetan Buddhism – China is meddling in the centuries-old sacred traditions of the Tibetan Buddhist system of reincarnation. In January 2007, China’s State Administration of Religious Affairs issued a new regulatory measure called “Order No. Five” on “management measures for the reincarnation of living Buddhas in Tibetan Buddhism”. The decree makes it compulsory for all the “tulkus” (reincarnated beings) to get approval of the CCP before starting studies and teaching as “tulkus”.

52. Destruction of cultural heritage of Tibetan and Uyghur peoples through so-called “Development projects”.

53. Destruction and desecration of monasteries and nunneries in Tibet – In 2013, the Chinese government forcibly shut down Gaden Dhargyeling monastery in Nagchu County, north-east Tibet, over its alleged link with the Dalai Lama.

54.  The CCP government severely restricts the movement of Tibetans even for religious purposes. Tibetans have to seek permission to go on pilgrimage even within the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR).

55. Demolition of Tibetan learning centres, 2016 – Larung Gar and Yarchen Gar, two of the largest Tibetan Buddhist Centres in the world were demolished and down-sized to less than half of their size prior to 2016.

56. “Patriotic re-education camps” continue – Monks and nuns are routinely subjected to “patriotic re-education camps” where they have to show love to their country by denouncing His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet.

57. Discriminatory policies against ethnic languages, 2021 – The CCP is imposing mono-linguistic policies in every region where the ethnic population is in majority such as Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Tibet etc.

58. The CCP attempts to forcibly change the traditional self-sustainable ways of lives of minority ethnic populations.

59. Mass Han Chinese population transferred to Tibet and Xinjiang to change the demography of these occupied regions.

60. Forced inter-ethnic marriages to assimilate Tibetans and Uyghurs.

61. Forced sterilization and forced abortions to regulate birth control in Xinjiang and Tibet.

62. Shortage of resources for local ethnic population due to Han population influx.

63. Depriving the indigenous population of good job prospects by giving preference to Han Chinese.

64. Social degradation and social marginalization of local populations in Tibet and Xinjiang with no social benefit given to local language speakers to ensure that all business is done in the Mandarin language.

65. Forcible shut down of primary schools in Tibet and Xinjiang regions and forcing the students to live in boarding schools in order to sinicize the children.

66. Tibetan students, officials and ordinary people are banned from participating in religious activities.

67. The traditional medicine systems of Tibet and Xinjiang were destroyed. The traditional monastic Chagpori College of Tibetan Medicine in Lhasa was destroyed in 1959 by the PLA troops.

68. The forcible integration of ‘hostile border regions’ to make them indistinguishable from any other province in China.

69. Huge income gap between urban areas predominantly inhabited by Chinese migrants and rural areas predominantly inhabited by local Tibetans, Uyghurs or any other ethnic minority community.

70. Forcible relocation of local populations to disrupt the traditional way of life in Xinjiang and Tibet.

71. Taking control of nomadic lands for the extraction of resources and ending traditional agricultural practices.

72. Forcing Tibetans and Uyghurs to work in factories and depriving them of their preferred traditional livelihood.

73. Rounding up minority populations in labour camps in the name of “poverty alleviation” policies.

74. China’s flawed environmental policies and dam building projects in Tibet have caused a huge climate crisis in Tibet as well as in the lower riparian regions. Tibet, described as the Third Pole, is facing rapid glacial retreat as temperatures are rapidly rising in the region. It is estimated that two-third of the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau will be depleted by 2050.

75. China’s extractive industry is determined to exploit the rich deposits at the cost of widespread environmental damage, including land erosion and contamination of water sources. The excessive deforestation in Tibet has caused the loss of biodiversity and environmental crisis in the region.

76. China has set up nuclear testing sites in Xinjiang (East Turkestan) and Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) which have a huge impact on the local population and environment.

77. Destructive and irresponsible mining practices coupled with extensive mining of rare earth material have led to large scale environmental degradation. Relentless construction of dams and mega dam projects directly contributed to the increased occurrence of natural disasters.

78. Tibetans and Uyghurs are often subjected to unfair trials with no possibility of defending themselves. All the court documents are only in the Mandarin language.

79. Illegal and incommunicado detention of Tibetans and Uyghurs without any official charges for months, where they are subjected to inhuman treatment and torture.

80.  No freedom of expression for Uyghurs and Tibetans – Tibetan and Uyghur Human rights activists are detained and tortured for raising their voices against the CCP.

81. Uyghurs and Tibetans are subjected to intrusive surveillance by state authorities through state-of–the-art technology. The introduction of a grid-based surveillance system uses grouping of households to keep an eye on each other, which creates an aura of fear and distrust among the local population.

82. Collection of biometrics of Uyghurs, Mongols and Tibetans for creating AI software that could detect and track them.

83. Marginalising ethnic minorities through the Social Credit System – This on top of a biased education policy for Ethnic minority and Han students in mainland universities.

84. Neo-colonial policies to expand the territory in the neighboring regions through hegemonic behaviour.

85. China’s expansion in the South China Sea is creating regional instability, fuelling neo-expansionism in the 21st century. China’s ambition is to capture the Indo-Pacific region for its own interest.

86. China’s unethical exploitation of natural resources in the poor African nations  forces poor countries to fall into a debt trap through policies of the BRI (Belt and Road Initiative).

87. BRI is a military and political problem for the countries that have agreed to the BRI projects.

88. China’s use of poor nations such as in Africa as a dumping-yard for its inferior quality products and exploiting these nations economic condition for the benefit of China’s own industries.

89.  China purchases raw material from economically weak nations and pumps back finished refined goods which leads to increased trade deficit with the economically weak countries.

90. Chinese companies utilize their overcapacity through BRI projects and bring their own labour and materials into other countries, bringing unemployment to those regions.

91. China has established the first offshore military base in Djibouti for controlling the main business route (Suez Canal) on the pretext of countering Somalian pirates.

92. China is the prime culprit behind the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic that has led to the death of over 5 million people across the world and disastrous economic consequences.

93. China has made covert use of International organisations such as the WHO to cover up the origin of the fatal virus.

94. China has used vaccine diplomacy to force countries (such as Turkey) to sign extradition treaties and to make poorer countries (such as Sri Lanka and Bangladesh) subservient to China.

95. China’s illicit use of Interpol to issue red notices to Uyghurs, Tibetans and human rights activists living abroad.

96. China has exerted pressure on international agencies and organisations to act in favour of China through planting CCP’s puppet leaders into the organisations and pumping huge financial subsidies into the organisations.

97. China’s theft of data and technology has posed a threat to cyber security worldwide.

98. China is trying to brainwash students and opinion makers through the establishment of Confucius Institutes in the universities of advanced countries which primarily serve as a vehicle for industrial and military espionage.

99. China’s rapid expansion of nuclear weapons is threatening the peace and stability of the region.

100. The recent “disappearance” of China’s female star tennis player, Peng Shuai, (2021), is a reminder of China’s disregard for international norms of law and justice and the rights of citizens to speak truth to power. 

Author: Tsering Passang (Tsamtruk)

NGO Professional | Activist | Author | Founder and Chairman, Global Alliance for Tibet & Persecuted Minorities (GATPM)

3 thoughts on “100 Atrocities Committed by Chinese Communist Party (CCP) – A Report by GATPM”

  1. Great work done…The cover of the report speaks a lot about the Report. On this day of world human rights let’s pledge to take down CCP, and make the world aware of atrocities by Chinese Communist Party.

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